Lim Siew Jiun (Eunice Lim) – Malaysia

  • March 12, 2020 at 1:57 pm #2283
    Huong Nguyen
    Keymaster

    I. Comparative Examples of Real Positive and Negative Leaders
    The Kectil Ten Points Of Leadership
    1. Mission
    Mission, the first point of leadership, points to the purpose of an individual, it presents itself as a goal for one to strive for; it serves as a necessary motive, to justify and necessitate a leader to lead. Without the point Mission, a leader would become aimless and will eventually lead his/her team to ruin, as without a destination, one would only find themselves on a road leading to nowhere. The point Mission is needed as a basis to begin, a reason to lead, the first step of their plans; and when there isn’t a reason [Mission] to begin with, there will be no endgame to look forward to nor any harvest to reap.

    Positive example: Abraham Lincoln, is none other than the 16th president of the United States (1861–65). I believe that his biggest goal [Mission] during his presidency, which was even bigger than the plans of stopping slavery in America, was to hold the American nation together in order to form a strong, indivisible country. I believe that this goal [Mission] was to prevent future chaos and strife within the country, and thus his Mission in the American Civil War was to preserve the Union, and he had eventually achieved said Mission, as well as having accomplished other feats such as abolishing slavery, strengthening the federal government, and had modernised the U.S. economy before his assassination.
    (sources – https://www.britannica.com/biography/Abraham-Lincoln
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln )
    Negative example: Adolf Hitler was the German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as the chancellor of Germany in 1933 and then as Der Führer (German: “The Leader”), in 1934. His Mission, fuelled by Nationalism and Racism was to create a Master race (Aryan race) while ruthlessly annihilating and torturing others, namely the Jews in The Holocaust. I believe that his goal [Mission] was also to seek revenge for the German nation due to the humiliation and harsh treatment from the Treaty of Versailles where Germany had to pay $33 billion in war reparations from WW1.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler https://www.nationalww2museum.org/war/articles/how-did-hitler-happen)
    2. Passion
    Passion, the energy of leadership, is the drive that pushes a leader towards his/her goal [Mission]. Without Passion, a leader would poorly execute his/her plans, undermining their team’s quality and end result in the process. Passion is critical in a leader in order for him/her to help their team reach their fullest potential as it is easy to lose motivation and it becomes more likely for the team to deliver poor effort without a leader that guides with a passionate spirit. In conclusion, team effort is more genuine and eminent when their team’s leader is passionate, because the attitude of a leader greatly impacts a team’s morale
    Positive example: George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) commanded the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). I believe that he was a man of passion. Passionate, patriotic, strategic and intelligent, he played the leading military role in the American Revolution. George Washington strongly believed in the idea [Passion] that it was vital to the growing nation that the east and west be knitted more strongly together via commerce, and had passionately strived to achieve it. I believe that in hopes to establish the Potomac River as the avenue of trade that would help to accomplish this goal, Washington helped found the Potomac Company in 1785, and that couldn’t have been achieved without his Passion.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington https://communitynewspapers.com/aventura-news/george-washington%E2%80%88man-of-passion/
    )
    Negative example: Attila the Hun was the leader of the Hunnic Empire from 434 to 453 A.D. Also called Flagellum Dei, or the “scourge of God,” Attila was known to Romans for his brutality and a penchant for sacking and pillaging Roman cities. I believe that he was passionate and ambitious on the ruthless end, which evidently gave him a cruel reputation. After killing his brother, Attila became the leader of the Hunnic Empire, focused in present-day Hungary, and ended up becoming one of the most feared assailants of the Roman Empire. Atila had expanded the Hunnic Empire to present-day Germany, Russia, Ukraine, and the Balkans, and had also invaded Gaul with the intention of conquering it, though he was defeated at the Battle of Catalaunian Plains. “There, where I have passed, the grass will never grow gain,” he reportedly remarked on his reign.
    (sources – https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T

    3. Vision
    Vision, the seer of leadership, is where a leader envisions his/her steps and actions in the grand scheme of things. What should they do? How should they execute their plans? Planning and predicting is part of Vision, an important point in leadership in order for the team to achieve their goal [Mission], as a leader needs a plan for the team to carry out before they can proceed to take further action. Without Vision, the execution would be a mess, because there is no Vision to guide their steps. A leader shouldn’t have sight but no vision, a proper Vision is necessary to achieve Mission, lest the team would fail to act in order and unison.
    Positive example: Fidel Castro is one of the two faces of the Cuban Revolution in 1953. He went on to become the country’s president and prime minister. A natural visionary, he had devised the revolution [Vision] during a time when he was facing many crises and an attempt of assassination against his life. I believe that he had proven to be a great leader and commander, his Vision has gotten Cuba where it stands today. He fought alongside Castro was Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara, an Argentine revolutionary who was the main man of the Cuban Revolution. His charisma and love for doing good for other people attracted so many people towards him, making him today a symbol of rebellion.
    (sources – https://futureofworking.com/8-visionary-leadership-examples/)

    Negative example: Adolf Eichmann was born in March 19, 1906, in Solingen- a small industrial city in the Rhineland. He was one of the major organizers of the Holocaust which I believe was his Vision. He was hanged by the state of Israel for his part in the Nazi extermination of Jews during World War II. His sadistic nature and beliefs had sacrificed the deaths of millions. “The death of five million Jews on my conscience gives me extraordinary satisfaction.”, he said. The Holocaust which had aligned with his Vision, was the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the primary victims and approximately six million people were murdered; Gypsies, the handicapped and Poles were also targeted for destruction or decimation for racial, ethnic, or national reasons. It is said that millions more, including homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Soviet prisoners of war and political dissidents, had also suffered grievous oppression and death under Nazi tyranny.
    (sources – https://www.ushmm.org/information/about-the-museum/mission-and-history https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann )

    4. Ethics
    Ethics, the moral compass of leadership, a leader’s guilty conscience. Ethics serves as an anchor in decisions, a preservation of fairness and virtue. It is undignified to deal with a matter in an unethical manner, therefore the leadership point Ethics is necessary to keep a leader’s actions in terms of morality in check. The safest/most humane option is juxtaposed with sacrifice when a leader is met at the crossroads on whether his/her action is ethical, and being ethical would prevent a leader from making rash or ruthless decisions, whilst finding the best possible option before resulting to less favorable and respectable measures.
    Positive example: Desmond Mpilo Tutu OMSG CH GCStJ is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. Archbishop Desmond Tutu had chaired the Independent Truth and Reconciliation Commission where I believe he aimed to ethically reach a sound level of justice without fuelling feelings of revenge and allow a form of punishment and an end to the cycle of violence. Amnesty was granted on certain conditions for crimes committed on political grounds and public acknowledgements and apologies were submitted by former torturers in the presence of their victims or their relatives.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmond_Tutu)

    Negative example: Wu Zetian (reign A.D. 690-705), alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, in English as Empress Consort Wu. Wu started as a 14-year-old junior concubine and eventually became the empress of China. I believe that Wu is a non-ethical leader. She is known to be ruthless and had eliminated opponents regardless if it were done in non-ethical means, such as dismissing, exiling, or executing them – even if they were her own family. Under her rule, the Chinese empire had greatly expanded, and though her tactics were cunning and brutal, her decisive nature and talent for government have been acknowledged and praised by historians. It is notable that military leaders who were handpicked by Wu took control of large parts of the Korean peninsula.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Zetian https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T
    )

    5. Compassion
    Compassion, the heart of leadership, is also a reflection of a leader’s maturity. When one is compassionate, and has the heart to forgive and love, he/she would make the world a better place by welcoming peace, acceptance as well as understanding and in turn would nurture growth. A compassionate leader would be a person of humanitarian nature and is sympathetic towards people of all backgrounds, yet not lacking in proper judgement nor lenient in deserving punishment. A compassionate leader would also be empathetic and virtuous, and would have more supporters due to his/her character, as anyone would be more willing to cooperate with a kind leader rather than a ruthless one. Compassion is easily overlooked as a weakness, but it isn’t; because it takes much strength to forgive, to be understanding, to be patient and not be a selfish person.
    Positive example: Nelson Mandela; Mandela was a compassionate leader who believed that forgiveness was more important than revenge, therefore I believe that he is a compassionate leader. As the first South African president elected in fully democratic elections, he was his country move past an era of apartheid after serving almost 30 years in prison; his commitment to justice and peace, even after being imprisoned for so many years, is a reminder that great leaders must often sacrifice their personal comfort to accomplish their goals.
    (sources – https://futureofworking.com/8-visionary-leadership-examples/ https://www.google.com/search?q=nelson+mandela&oq=nelson&aqs=chrome.2.69i57j0l7.5461j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 )

    Negative example: Genghis Khan, also officially Genghis Emperor, was the founder and first Great Khan and Emperor of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. I believe he lacked compassion and was responsible for the deaths of as many as 40 million people. Khan’s father was poisoned to death when Khan was 9, and he was a slave during his teenage years before he united the Mongol tribes and went on to conquer a huge chunk of Central Asia and China. Lacking in compassion and often characterized as brutal, historians have pointed out that he slaughtered civilians en masse; one of the most notable examples was when he massacred the aristocrats of the Khwarezm Empire, decimating the ruling class, while the unskilled workers were taken to be used as human shields.
    (sources – https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan)

    6. Equality and Respect
    Equality and respect, the attitude and etiquette of leadership, depicts how a leader treats other people. A leader should always be respectful of others as while respect should be earned, everyone is entitled to a decent level of respect as a human being, and should not be treated less kindly than others. A leader should also be someone who is willing to fight for equality, and not turn a blind eye to the suffering of others. Regardless of race, gender, beliefs and sexuality, it is only fair to treat each other kindly and fairly, and to only make necessary judgement when the other party has proven to be misguided or unethical beyond help as in the end we are all human, and we are all subject to change. Leaders should not judge someone like judging a book by the cover, and by being respectful of other people, the leader would in turn gain respect from others.
    Positive example: Sandra Day O’Connor; in 1981, President Ronald Reagan nominated Sandra Day O’Connor as the first woman justice on the Supreme Court, as she fought for equality and respect. O’Connor served as the swing vote on a number of important cases for controversial issues like abortion, affirmative action, election law, sexual harassment and the death penalty during her 24 years on the bench; I believe that she serves as a powerful example for leaders fighting for equality and respect and women in the legal profession and is a reminder that great leaders are not afraid to fight for justice, even when their peers do not agree with their actions or beliefs.
    (sources – https://futureofworking.com/8-visionary-leadership-examples/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandra_Day_O%27Connor )

    Negative example: Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, has owned over 600 African-American slaves throughout his adult life. I believe that Jefferson does not believe in equality and respect and while he had freed two slaves while he lived, and seven more after his death, he had consistently spoken against the international slave trade, outlawed while he was President, while he advocated gradual emancipation and colonization of domestic slaves. Common for his time, Jefferson had believed that black people were inherently inferior to white people and thought it was best the two races remained segregated and this proves that he lacked the belief of equality and respect.
    ( sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson_and_slavery https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson)

    7. Good Government/Management
    Good Government/Management, the construct of leadership, is where a leader manages his/her actions in an efficient and clean manner. A good government/management should be corruption free, void of exploitation of others, to prevent unethical acts that will result in an undignified image that will sully a leader’s reputation, and in turn decrease the support of others, as well as damage certain opportunities and relations, which would ultimately equate to a leader’s downfall. Good Government/Management is necessary and important to maintain peace, as well as to avoid discrimination, inequality and injustice towards others, which if left unattended would possibly result in Mission’s failure and a leader’s fall from grace; a leader who was once placed high on a pedestal, would find his/her podium cracked amidst a chaotic uproar against his/her corruption.
    Positive example: Kwame Nkrumah PC was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. His administration was both nationalist and socialist, and it had funded both national industrial and energy projects. He also developed a strong national education system and promoted a national and pan-African culture, which is I believe is an evidence of good government/management. Under Nkrumah, Ghana played a leading role in African international relations during the decolonization period, and he had abstained from violence when fighting for Ghana’s independence.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwame_Nkrumah https://futureofworking.com/8-visionary-leadership-examples/ )

    Negative example: Sani Abacha; Abacha was a Nigerian army officer and dictator who served as the president of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998, whom is believe would be a suitable negative example of management/government due to his actions that have proven a man that had been poisoned by political pursuits. Abacha’s five-year rule was shrouded in corruption allegations, though the extent and severity of that corruption was highlighted only after his death when it was revealed that he took between US$3 and $5 billion of public money; in 2014, the US Justice Department revealed that it froze more than US$458 million in illicit funds that Abacha and his conspirators hid around the world, which proves poor government/management and the exploitation of his position. For years, Nigeria has been fighting to recover the stolen money, but companies linked to the Abacha family have gone to court to prevent repatriation.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sani_Abacha https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/25_corruption_scandals#Turkey%20Gas%20for%20Gold)

    8. Personal Presentation
    Personal Presentation, the image of leadership is how a leader presents himself/herself to the public, as well as how he sells himself/herself to others. Personal Presentation is crucial because a leader’s attitude, outlook and personality is the secret to success. It is also important as a nonverbal communication; for example, the clothes you wear, is it neat and tidy? Or creased and sloppy? Or the time you arrive for an interview, are you late or on time? Or the way you maintain your workplace, is it neat or messy? These nonverbal cues add up to a person’s impression on another, and however a leader chooses to present himself/herself to the public is what they will see. In order to leave a good impression and to win the favor of others, a leader should take Personal Presentation seriously to display competence and self-awareness.
    Positive example: Alexander the Great was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty; and he had changed the world in several significant ways. He brought to the Greeks a new way of fighting and the way of life. I believe that his impression in history gave a good personal presentation of himself. One of his personal presentations is that he is well known for his anger, but he could also be merciful. When one settlement wouldn’t yield to his authority, he took it by force and burned it to the ground. Yet in a great victory over Darius, the Persian king, Alexander captured Darius’s wife and daughter and showed them kindness, not cruelty. He treated his soldiers well. His soldiers were inspired by his example and followed him to what was then the ends of the earth. And through it all, he never lost sight of his ultimate purpose- to spread the light of Greece into the darkness of the world.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great http://socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/alexanderthegreatlegacy1.htm http://www.allrefer.com/top-5-greatest-historical-rulers-of-all-time)
    Negative example: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, also known as Caligula. Caligula was quite popular at first because he freed citizens who were unjustly imprisoned and got rid of a stiff sales tax. But then he became ill, and he was never quite the same again, and I believe that his fall from grace had led his personal presentation to be ultimately affected due to his foolish actions. He had eliminated political rivals (forcing their parents to watch the execution), and declared himself a living god. According to Roman historian Suetonius, Caligula had done some outrageous acts including having sex with his sisters and sold their services to other men, he also raped and killed people, and made his horse a priest. He was eventually attacked by a group of guardsmen and stabbed 30 times.
    (sources – https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T)

    9. Team Building
    Team Building, the system of leadership, is where a leader and his/her efficiently constructs a team in a manner whereby each team member’s best quality is utilized. A good leader acknowledges every member’s different abilities, strong points and weak points. He or she should know what the team needs most in order to achieve Mission, and be able to coax team member’s out of their comfort zones and initial wants in a position in order to build the best possible team out of his/her group. Of course not everyone enjoys being in a team as it can be hard to manage, but Team Building is important because one of the best ways to achieve Mission is when a leader succeeds in building a team that takes action in complete cooperation, efficiency and unison, as well as manages to cover each other’s individual weak points
    Positive example: Steve Jobs, also known as Steven Paul Jobs, was an American business magnate, industrial designer, investor, and media proprietor. I believe that he serves as a good example of team building. In 1986, shortly after he was forced out of Apple, Steve Jobs bought a small computer manufacturer named Pixar; he had relocated the company to an abandoned Del Monte canning factory, but for Jobs who had pressed on the importance of team building, did not want to just create a work space, but believed that he needed to make people go there and actually work as a team. The primary challenge for Pixar was getting its different cultures to work together and collaborate, even if it came at the expense of convenience, all for the sake to build a good, cooperative team. The constant emphasis on consilience has become evidence of Steve Job’s belief of the importance of team building, as he had insisted that the best creations occurred between people of disparate fields where they were connected, especially in an age of intellectual fragmentation.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs https://www.scoro.com/blog/teamwork-stories-importance-of-teamwork/)

    Negative example: Hideki Tojo was the Supreme Military Leader of Japan from 1936 until 1944 and prime minister from 1941 until 1944. He was a strong supporter of the Tripartite Pact between Japan, Germany and Italy. Minister of War in the second cabinet of Fumimaro Konoe, he was chosen as prime minister by the emperor in October 1941. Tojo appointed himself as “military czar” and grabs even more power as he takes over as army chief of staff, a position that gives him direct control of the Japanese military, where I believe he had efficiently built a strong team of soldiers that were willing to sacrifice their own lives in the act of Kamikaze for the nation.
    (sources – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hideki_Tojo)

    10. Measurable Accomplishments
    Measurable Accomplishments, would be the status of a leader in leadership. The more a leader has accomplished, the more his/her status, as well as recognition and respect from others are elevated. This is important to a leader’s image, pride and even confidence. What he or she has achieved would serve as motivation for future goals, and would further ignite a leader’s follower’s faith in him/her. And most importantly, Measurable Accomplishments would serve as a positive mark in humanity, and a reminder to all in future generations that there are some things worth fighting for, and to inspire them to be a good leader. But if a leader turns corrupt, he or she would be remembered in an unpleasant light, and his/her negative accomplishments would serve as a warning to future generations of such dire conquests and its consequences on humanity.
    Positive example: Barrack Obama is the 44th president of the United States (2009-2017), has a long list of accomplishments that I believe makes him a good example for the leadership point Measurable accomplishments. His accomplishments include rescuing the country from the Great Recession, signing the Affordable Care Act which provided health insurance to over 20 million uninsured America, ending the war in Iraq, ordered for the capture and killing of Osama Bin Laden, supported the LGBT community’s fight for marriage equality, commuted the sentences of nearly 1200 drug offenders to reverse “unjust and outdated prison sentences”, saved the U.S. auto industry, dropped the veteran homeless rate by 50 percent, making it a federal crime to assault anyone based on sexual or gender identification, signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act to combat pay discrimination against women, expanded embryonic stem cell research leading to ground-breaking work in areas including spinal injury treatment and cancer and so on.
    (sources – https://www.good.is/articles/obamas-achievements-in-office https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama)
    Negative example: Qin, also called Qin Shihuangdi, united China in 221 B.C. and ruled as the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, and I believe he had cemented himself as a fierce and ruthless leader due to his accomplishments, which aren’t the most compassionate or positive. He had ordered the killing of scholars whose ideas he disagreed with and had burned books he considered to be “critical”, incorrect or subversive. He was alleged to have destroyed philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought, aiming to benefit the official Qin governing philosophy of Legalism. During his reign, Qin Shihuangdi had ordered the construction of a great wall (roughly speaking, the prequel to the modern Great Wall of China), and an enormous mausoleum featuring more than 6,000 life-size terra-cotta soldier figures; large numbers of conscripts had died while working on the wall, and those working on the mausoleum were killed to preserve the secrecy of the tomb.
    (sources – https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of_books_and_burying_of_scholars

    II. Write your own funeral speech.

    Author: Lim Siew Jiun (Eunice)
    Title: Goodbye
    The world is a beautiful place, just as it is scary. From nature and wildlife, to civilisation and culture; rich in history, awe-inspiring architecture and technological advancements, and most wonderful and as equally terrifying, is its people. While the world is astonishing enough on its own, humans have certainly made the world a more interesting place, with each individual, existing and contributing, further adding colour to the world.
    As an artist, I am especially attracted to colours, scenery and people, and all my travels have inspired me artistically and have invoked a raw appreciation to life within me, and it is fascinating as well as comforting to know that such different places from mine would share the same sky; since young, and since numerous deaths of relatives and those around me, I have been painfully aware of the fragility of life, and have come to greatly appreciate it. I am not afraid of death in essence; while life is ephemeral, just as death is certainly unavoidable, any influence I leave behind would be permanent. I am more-so worried that I have not fully lived my life, and have not done things that I want to or should have done before my time.
    Having been born to this world, I try to do good, make friends, find purpose and happiness. There are times where I have been lost, and at my lowest I had once considered a premature death at the age of 12. Accepting hatred and envy, and eventually willing to love, I have found peace with myself. I am grateful for those in my life, and for all the experiences I’ve had- both positive and negative, as they have shaped me to be the person I am today, and the person that would be remembered by tomorrow.
    At the end of the day, I can only hope that I have lived a fulfilling life, and that I have contributed something to the world. I don’t necessary want to be remembered by, but I do want to leave a positive impact, one way or another. I do have regrets, and I have committed my own sins, just as I have my personal demons, as is human nature. I want to thank my dearest, my closest friends and my lovely family members with all my heart and soul, for supporting me all this while. I apologise to those I have hurt, and I ask that everyone would live their best life. I can only hope that I leave with a contented life, before I end my journey with a final goodbye.
    III. Organize a Peer Panel to Discuss the Kectil Ten Points of Leadership
    On the 24th of February 2020, I have participated in a peer panel discussion on the topic of the 10 Kectil Leadership Points with three other individuals; they are Tharvin Kanth, Christy Yu Jie Xuan, Jordan Lim Wei Zhi and Nawin Raaj.
    Regarding the first leadership point, Mission, we have come to the conclusion that Mission serves as a necessary motive, to justify and necessitate a leader to lead. A positive example would be Abraham Lincoln; Lincoln is the 16th president of the United States (1861–65) whom I believe worked hard for the goal he had set his sights on; his biggest goal, which was said to be even bigger than stopping slavery, was to hold the American nation together into a strong, indivisible country to prevent future chaos and conflict, because it would be too much of a mess to deal with if the nation were not united; a nation that is not united, would only break apart further into splinters, and this would prove to be a problem for its leaders. This goal [Mission] of his was planned to prevent future chaos and strife within the country, and thus his Mission in the American Civil War was to preserve the Union, which he had eventually achieved, as well as having accomplished other feats such as abolishing slavery, strengthening the federal government, and had modernised the U.S. economy before his assassination. On the other hand, a negative example for Mission would be the well-known tyrant Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler was the German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. A man poisoned by his beliefs, he rose to power as the chancellor of Germany in 1933 and then as Der Führer (German: “The Leader”), in 1934. His Mission, fuelled by Nationalism and Racism was to create a Master race (Aryan race) while ruthlessly annihilating and torturing others, namely the Jews in The Holocaust. I believe that his goal [Mission] was also to seek revenge for the German nation due to the humiliation and harsh treatment from the Treaty of Versailles where Germany had to pay $33 billion in war reparations from WW1.
    The next leadership point would be Passion, our group members have agreed that Passion is the drive that pushes a leader towards his/her goal [Mission]. A positive example would be George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) commanded the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) whom I believe has a strong sense of passion towards his goals. Passionate, patriotic, strategic and intelligent, he played the leading military role in the American Revolution. George Washington strongly believed in the idea [Passion] that it was vital to the growing nation that the east and west be knitted more strongly together via commerce, and had passionately strived to achieve it. In hopes to establish the Potomac River as the avenue of trade that would help to accomplish this goal, Washington helped found the Potomac Company in 1785, and I believe that such a feat couldn’t have been achieved without his Passion. Next, a negative example would be Attila the Hun who was the leader of the Hunnic Empire from 434 to 453 A.D. Also called Flagellum Dei, or the “scourge of God,” Attila was known to Romans for his brutality and a penchant for sacking and pillaging Roman cities. I believe that he was passionate and ambitious on the ruthless end, which evidently gave him a cruel reputation. After killing his brother, Attila became the leader of the Hunnic Empire, focused in present-day Hungary, and ended up becoming one of the most feared assailants of the Roman Empire. Atila had expanded the Hunnic Empire to present-day Germany, Russia, Ukraine, and the Balkans, and had also invaded Gaul with the intention of conquering it, though he was defeated at the Battle of Catalaunian Plains. “There, where I have passed, the grass will never grow gain,” he reportedly remarked on his reign.
    The third leadership point would be Vision, three members agreed that Vision is where a leader envisions his/her steps and actions in the grand scheme of things, while two viewed it as something from a revolutionary standpoint. An example of a good leader would be Fidel Castro; he is one of the two faces of the Cuban Revolution in 1953. He went on to become the country’s president and prime minister. He devised the revolution during a time when he was facing many crises and an attempt of assassination against his life, which I believe have proven him to be a great leader and commander, his vision has gotten Cuba where it stands today. Fighting alongside Castro was Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara, who was an Argentine revolutionary who was the main man of the Cuban Revolution. His charisma and love for doing good for other people attracted so many people towards him, making him today a symbol of rebellion. A negative example on the other hand would be Adolf Eichmann. Eichmann was born on the 19th of March, 1906, in Solingen- a small industrial city in the Rhineland. He was one of the major organizers of the Holocaust [Vision]. He was hanged by the state of Israel for his part in the Nazi extermination of Jews during World War II. A sadistic man, I believe that his Vision was a cruel one involving the deaths of millions. “The death of five million Jews on my conscience gives me extraordinary satisfaction.”, he said. The Holocaust which had aligned with his Vision, was the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the primary victims and approximately six million people were murdered; Gypsies, the handicapped and Poles were also targeted for destruction or decimation for racial, ethnic, or national reasons. It is said that millions more, including homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Soviet prisoners of war and political dissidents, had also suffered grievous oppression and death under Nazi tyranny.
    The fourth leadership point Ethics, was agreed to be the moral compass of a leader; a leader’s guilty conscience in decisions. I believe that a positive display of this would be Desmond Mpilo Tutu OMSG CH GCStJ, who is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. Archbishop Desmond Tutu had chaired the Independent Truth and Reconciliation Commission where he aimed to ethically reach a sound level of justice without fuelling feelings of revenge and allow a form of punishment and an end to the cycle of violence. Amnesty was granted on certain conditions for crimes committed on political grounds and public acknowledgements and apologies were submitted by former torturers in the presence of their victims or their relatives. A negative display on the other hand would be Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian (reign A.D. 690-705), alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, in English as Empress Consort Wu. I believe that Wu is a non-ethical leader. Wu started as a 14-year-old junior concubine and eventually became the empress of China. She is known to be ruthless and had eliminated opponents regardless if it were done in non-ethical means, such as dismissing, exiling, or executing them – even if they were her own family. Under her rule, the Chinese empire had greatly expanded, and though her tactics were cunning and brutal, her decisive nature and talent for government have been acknowledged and praised by historians. It is notable that military leaders who were handpicked by Wu took control of large parts of the Korean peninsula.
    The fifth leadership point would be Compassion, whereby all members agreed that a compassionate leader would be an empathetic and virtuous person who is mature and has the strength to forgive, to be understanding, to be patient and not be a selfish person. A positive example would be Nelson Mandela; I believe Mandela was a compassionate leader who understood that forgiveness and peace was more important and more valuable of a virtue than revenge. As the first South African president elected in fully democratic elections, he helped his country move past an era of apartheid after serving almost 30 years in prison; his commitment to justice and peace, even after being imprisoned for so many years, is a reminder and example that great leaders must often sacrifice their personal comfort to accomplish their goals. Meanwhile a negative example would be Genghis Khan, also officially Genghis Emperor, was the founder and first Great Khan and Emperor of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. I believe that he lacked compassion as he was solely responsible for the deaths of as many as 40 million people. Khan’s father was poisoned to death when Khan was 9, and he was a slave during his teenage years before he united the Mongol tribes and went on to conquer a huge chunk of Central Asia and China. Lacking in compassion and often characterized as brutal, historians have pointed out that he slaughtered civilians en masse; one of the most notable examples was when he massacred the aristocrats of the Khwarezm Empire, decimating the ruling class, while the unskilled workers were taken to be used as human shields.
    The sixth leadership point would be Equality and respect, which was agreed to be the attitude and etiquette of leadership, it depicts how a leader treats other people. A positive example of this would be Sandra Day O’Connor; in 1981, President Ronald Reagan nominated Sandra Day O’Connor as the first woman justice on the Supreme Court, as she fought for equality and respect. I believe that O’Connor is a good example of equality and respect due to her actions. O’Connor served as the swing vote on a number of important cases for controversial issues like abortion, affirmative action, election law, sexual harassment and the death penalty during her 24 years on the bench; she serves as a powerful example for women in the legal profession and is a reminder that great leaders are not afraid to fight for justice, even when their peers do not agree with their actions or beliefs. A negative example would be Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, has owned over 600 African-American slaves throughout his adult life. I believe that Jefferson did not believe in equality and respect, while Jefferson had freed two slaves while he lived, and seven more after his death, he had consistently spoken against the international slave trade, outlawed while he was President, while he advocated gradual emancipation and colonization of domestic slaves. Common for his times, Jefferson believed black people were inherently inferior to white people and thought it was best the two races remained segregated, which proves that he does not pay much thought to the idea of equality and respect.
    The seventh point which is Good Government/Management, has been agreed to be the construct of leadership, is where a leader manages his/her actions in an efficient and clean manner. A good example would be Kwame Nkrumah PC , who was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. His administration was both nationalist and socialist, and it had funded both national industrial and energy projects. He also developed a strong national education system and promoted a national and pan-African culture, which I believe is a good evidence of good government/management. Under Nkrumah, Ghana played a leading role in African international relations during the decolonization period, and he had abstained from violence when fighting for Ghana’s independence. A negative example would be Sani Abacha; I believe that he is a suitable negative depiction of poor government/management. Abacha was a Nigerian army officer and dictator who served as the president of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. Abacha’s five-year rule was shrouded in corruption allegations, though the extent and severity of that corruption was highlighted only after his death when it was revealed that he took between US$3 and $5 billion of public money; in 2014, the US Justice Department revealed that it froze more than US$458 million in illicit funds that Abacha and his conspirators hid around the world, which proves poor government/management and the exploitation of his position. For years, Nigeria has been fighting to recover the stolen money, but companies linked to the Abacha family have gone to court to prevent repatriation.
    The eighth point of leadership is Personal Presentation, which is the image of leadership and how a leader presents himself/herself to the public, as well as how he sells himself/herself to others. A positive representative would be Alexander the Great; Alexander was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty; he had changed the world in several significant ways, and I believe that he has given a good personal presentation of himself. He brought to the Greeks a new way of fighting and the way of life. One of his personal presentations is that he is well known for his anger, but he could also be merciful. When one settlement wouldn’t yield to his authority, he took it by force and burned it to the ground. Yet in a great victory over Darius, the Persian king, Alexander captured Darius’s wife and daughter and showed them kindness, not cruelty. He treated his soldiers well. His soldiers were inspired by his example and followed him to what was then the ends of the earth. And through it all, he never lost sight of his ultimate purpose- to spread the light of Greece into the darkness of the world. A negative example on the other hand would be Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, also known as Caligula. Caligula was quite popular at first because he freed citizens who were unjustly imprisoned and got rid of a stiff sales tax. But then he became ill, and he was never quite the same again, and I believe that his fall from grace had led his personal presentation to be ultimately affected due to his foolish actions. He eliminated political rivals (forcing their parents to watch the execution), and declared himself a living god. According to Roman historian Suetonius, Caligula had done some outrageous acts including having sex with his sisters and sold their services to other men, he also raped and killed people, and made his horse a priest. He was eventually attacked by a group of guardsmen and stabbed 30 times.
    The ninth point of leadership on the other hand would be Team Building where a leader and his/her efficiently constructs a team in a manner whereby each team member’s best quality is utilized. A positive example would be Steve Jobs, also known as Steven Paul Jobs, who was an American business magnate, industrial designer, investor, and media proprietor. I believe that he serves as a good example of team building. In 1986, shortly after he was forced out of Apple, Steve Jobs bought a small computer manufacturer named Pixar; he had relocated the company to an abandoned Del Monte canning factory, but for Jobs who had pressed on the importance of team building, did not want to just create a work space, but believed that he needed to make people go there and actually work as a team. The primary challenge for Pixar was getting its different cultures to work together and collaborate, even if it came at the expense of convenience, all for the sake to build a good, cooperative team. The constant emphasis on consilience has become evidence of Steve Job’s belief of the importance of team building, as he had insisted that the best creations occurred between people of disparate fields where they were connected, especially in an age of intellectual fragmentation. Next, a negative example would be Hideki Tojo, who was the Supreme Military Leader of Japan from 1936 until 1944 and prime minister from 1941 until 1944. He was a strong supporter of the Tripartite Pact between Japan, Germany and Italy. Minister of War in the second cabinet of Fumimaro Konoe, he was chosen as prime minister by the emperor in October 1941. Tojo appointed himself as “military czar” and grabs even more power as he takes over as army chief of staff, a position that gives him direct control of the Japanese military, where I believe he had efficiently built a strong team of soldiers that were willing to sacrifice their own lives in the act of Kamikaze for the nation.
    The final leadership point is Measurable Accomplishments, which would be the status of a leader in leadership. The more a leader has accomplished, the more his/her status, as well as recognition and respect from others are elevated. A positive candidate would be Barrack Obama, who is the 44th president of the United States (2009-2017), has a long list of accomplishments that I believe makes him a good example for the leadership point Measurable accomplishments. His accomplishments include rescuing the country from the Great Recession, signing the Affordable Care Act which provided health insurance to over 20 million uninsured America, ending the war in Iraq, ordered for the capture and killing of Osama Bin Laden, supported the LGBT community’s fight for marriage equality, commuted the sentences of nearly 1200 drug offenders to reverse “unjust and outdated prison sentences”, saved the U.S. auto industry, dropped the veteran homeless rate by 50 percent, making it a federal crime to assault anyone based on sexual or gender identification, signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act to combat pay discrimination against women, expanded embryonic stem cell research leading to ground-breaking work in areas including spinal injury treatment and cancer and so on. Other than that, I believe a suitable negative example would be Qin, also called Qin Shihuangdi, who had united China in 221 B.C. and ruled as the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, and I believe he had cemented himself as a fierce and ruthless leader due to his accomplishments, which aren’t the most compassionate or positive. He had ordered the killing of scholars whose ideas he disagreed with and had burned books he considered to be “critical”, incorrect or subversive. He was alleged to have destroyed philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought, aiming to benefit the official Qin governing philosophy of Legalism. During his reign, Qin Shihuangdi had ordered the construction of a great wall (roughly speaking, the prequel to the modern Great Wall of China), and an enormous mausoleum featuring more than 6,000 life-size terra-cotta soldier figures; large numbers of conscripts had died while working on the wall, and those working on the mausoleum were killed to preserve the secrecy of the tomb.
    In conclusion, these are everyone’s compiled thoughts on the discussion of the 10 Kectil Points of Leadership. Each point is equally important, and it would not be favourable for a leader to lack any one of fore-mentioned points, as each leadership point is crucial to the development of the project, leader and team alike. A leader who is able to succeed in cultivating all the Kectil points of leadership would prove to be a formidable, respectable and wise leader. Aspiring leaders should follow in the footsteps of positive historical leaders, as well as learn from the mistakes of the negative historical leaders whose stories serve as a lesson to all.
    Sources: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Abraham-Lincoln
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Lincoln
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler https://www.nationalww2museum.org/war/articles/how-did-hitler-happen https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington

    https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T

    https://www.ushmm.org/information/about-the-museum/mission-and-history https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Eichmann
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmond_Tutu
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Zetian
    https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T
    https://futureofworking.com/8-visionary-leadership-examples/ https://www.google.com/search?q=nelson+mandela&oq=nelson&aqs=chrome.2.69i57j0l7.5461j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
    https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan
    https://futureofworking.com/8-visionary-leadership-examples/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandra_Day_O%27Connor
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson_and_slavery https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwame_Nkrumah

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sani_Abacha https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/25_corruption_scandals#Turkey%20Gas%20for%20Gold
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great http://socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/alexanderthegreatlegacy1.htm http://www.allrefer.com/top-5-greatest-historical-rulers-of-all-time
    https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs https://www.scoro.com/blog/teamwork-stories-importance-of-teamwork/
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hideki_Tojo
    https://www.good.is/articles/obamas-achievements-in-office https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama
    https://www.businessinsider.my/most-ruthless-leaders-of-all-time-2015-10?r=US&IR=T
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burning_of_books_and_burying_of_scholars

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